Post-Independence Challenges of Post-Independence Nations
Almost a decade has passed since India achieved its independence. During this period of time, the country has witnessed some of the most dramatic changes in the political, economic and social spheres. Today, India is a nation that is growing in leaps and bounds. With its population expanding to a staggering one billion people, the nation has become one of the most diverse nations in the world. This diversity is reflected in the country’s cuisine, music and art. Similarly, the nation has also become a world leader in science, technology and engineering.
Despite the fact that India has gone through numerous changes in the past decades, a number of fundamental challenges remain the same. However, the country has managed to overcome these hurdles and has made steady progress. The country is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world. In the coming years, it is expected to overtake China as the world’s largest. Among the major reasons for this, visionary leadership has played a significant role.
The country’s political scenario entered a new phase in the 1990s. This was characterized by religion-based vote banks and regional parties. These factors prompted India to open its economy for the private sector. The lack of competitiveness in the public sector forced the government to rely on the market.
The state’s role required regulating economic activity, expanding the productive base of the economy, and establishing new financial institutions. This was achieved through the liberalization of the economy in 1991. This paved the way for FDI to come into the country.
During the 18th century, Peru was a colony of Spain. After a succession of military takeovers, Peru became the second to last redoubt of the Spanish monarchy in South America. Peru’s economy declined, largely because of the loss of the silver mining industry. During the nineteenth century, Peru embraced an agricultural revolution that demanded huge inputs of fertilizer. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, silver mining was recovered briefly.
Peru’s transition from colonial rule to nominal independence was a highly volatile, politically unstable process. The government struggled to implement a radical reform program, which was intended to redistribute wealth and create a more just social order. However, these reforms were often poorly managed. They were also hampered by massive government deficits and external debt.
During this period, Peru suffered from a large influx of immigrants from West Africa. The immigrants suffered from deep-seated racial discrimination and lack of employment. They were largely frustrated by the lack of opportunity in southern Peru.
During Nigeria’s brief history as an independent country, the country’s history has been dominated by military rule for more than half of its 39 years as a sovereign nation. The military rulers fathered two principal post-independence constitutions: the 1979 Constitution and the 1999 Constitution. Currently, Nigeria faces a number of constitutional challenges. These include revenue sharing, a unitary judiciary, and distribution of powers.
The country has plenty of oil and gas reserves and is home to more than 1 million people. Lagos, its largest city, is a gleaming city of skyscrapers and wide boulevards. However, a number of Nigerians have left the country for better jobs overseas. The country has also been wracked by corruption and economic mismanagement.
The country is rife with ethnic problems. Each of the country’s three regions is controlled by an ethnic group. The Igbo, who live east of the Niger, had an elaborate social and political system.
During the 20 years that the country was under the Apartheid system, more than 12,000 people were killed in political violence. The ANC and the IFP signed a peace pact in Durban on May 14, 1999. These two parties agreed to form a coalition government in the new dispensation.
Many policies were initiated by the government after 1994. These policies included the water service act, which aimed to improve the quality of water supply. However, many of these policies failed to address other issues in the water sector.
In addition to the political crisis, the water sector has been affected by climate change. Population growth puts pressure on water resources. Also, groundwater pollution has affected the hydrological linkage between groundwater and surface water. This means that water quality will continue to decline as more pressure is applied to a scarce supply.
Water policies in South Africa are governed by three spheres of government, namely national government, provincial government, and local government. However, the lack of clarity in the policies makes it difficult to formulate effective water policies.